Expedition on board RV “V.A. Koptyug”, July 15–26, 2018
The complex expedition was carried out within the framework of the programs “Assessment and Forecast of Ecological State of Lake Baikal and Adjacent Territories under Conditions of Anthropogenic Impact and Climate Change” and “Monitoring and Assessment of the Influence of Natural Hazards (Forest and Peat Fires) and Anthropogenic Sources on the Quality of the Atmosphere in the Baikal Region Based on the Complex Remote and Ground-Based Local Changes, and Mathematical Modelling” on board RV “V.A. Koptyug”, July 15–26, 2018 in the areas of Southern, Central and Northern Baikal. The expedition included the representatives of five institutes from five cities of the Russian Federation.
The work was aimed at studying in the monitoring regime aerosol and gas impurities, meteorological, radiation and dynamic characteristics of the Baikal atmosphere and adjacent territories for identification of sources of pollution in the transfers of the atmospheric pollutants resulting from natural hazards (forest and peat fires) and possible anthropogenic impacts.
By means of remote sensing of the atmosphere (lidar) and local control (high sensitivity automatic gas analysers for detection of ozone, sulphur, nitrogen and mercury oxides, aethalometer (identification of black carbon), analyser of particle number of aerosol, and low and high aerosol samplers) the complex measurements of microphysical and optical properties of aerosol, space-time distribution and variation of small gas impurities in the atmosphere over the water area of Lake Baikal were carried out. The aerosol was sampled for determining chemical composition (ions, microelements, PAHs, Corg and other organic compounds). Various parameters in the atmosphere were measured along the RV course, near local sources of atmospheric pollution (towns of Slyudyanka, Baikalsk, Severobaikalsk; Listvyanka, Turka, and Nizhneangarsk settlements; estuaries of the large Selenga and Barguzin rivers). Exhaust gases of ships and natural fires were analysed. At that time, smoke from forest fires in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic and Krasnoyarsk Krai was regularly registered over the lake. Simultaneously, synchronous observations by all indicators analysed were also conducted on the coast of Southern Baikal (research stations in Listvyanka, Bolshiye Koty and Boyarsk). Workshops were held on board, where participants presented their studies. The planned fieldworks were completely fulfilled. The elemental mercury, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and black carbon (soot) were measured in continuous mode with averaging in 2-5 minutes. Based on these components, large data arrays were obtained. Vertical and horizontal sensing of the atmosphere at a distance of up to 10-12 km was performed using lidar. The particle number and mass concentrations of aerosol, as well as meteorological parameters were analysed every hour. More than a hundred aerosol samples were processed for various chemical parameters.